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ISOLATION - Колыхалова О. А., Макаев В. В. К60 Английский язык: Учебник для студентов и аспиран­тов гуманитарных...


ISOLATION

  1. «this combination of natural and artificial isolation» (II.28)

a. The «natural» isolation was the result of________.

b. The «artificial» isolation was the result of_______.

2. A. «Thus natural geographic isolation at first compounded later by human design, forced the Japanese to live more sepa­rately from the rest of the world than any other comparably large and advanced group of people.»(II.24-27)

В. «or perhaps one should say that this combination of natural and artificial isolation enabled them more than most other peoples to develop on their own and in their own way». (11.27-30)

The two statements, A and B, represent different ways of conveying essentially the same information.

They differ significantly, however, in point of view.

1. Explain this difference.(What is the point of view of A? -of B?)

2. In what respect is the above statement — and — re­statement (A and B) similar to the following statement.


«It has made other people, even the nearby Koreans and Chinese, look on the Japanese as being somehow different, and has produced in the Japanese a strong sense ofself-dentity».

3. Why do you suppose the writer keeps shifting the point of view in this way? (What is he probably trying to tell us by implication?)

3. What combination of characteristics makes Japan «unique» (1.34)?

a. It is____________.

b. It is_____________.

4. Why is it «ironic» (47) that isolation has «caused the Japanese to be acutely aware of anything that comes from outside and to draw special attention to its foreign provenance»? (11.47-49) (i.e., what ironic effect has this had on Japan's repu­tation?)

5. The British Isles are mentioned (1.74) to illustrate the point that_________________.

6. «But prolonged separation ... terrain». (II. 74-76)

A. The internal barriers would normally pre­vent_______.

B. In Japan these internal geographical barriers did not have the effect they have had in other parts of the world. Why not?

7. A. There is «a diversity of facial types in Japan». (II. 82, 83)

B. There «are few important physical variations» among the Japanese.(II.87, 88)

a. How does the writer manage to reconcile the above facts, which are seemingly contradictory?

b. Both facts are part of the evidence supporting the main idea in paragraph 7. What is that idea?

8. A. What do we learn from paragraph 9 about the ethnic origins of the people of Korea and North China, as opposed to those of South China?

B. Which of these groups do the Japanese resemble more closely in their physical characteristics?

C. Which group are they «basically» (line 114) closest to?

9. Why is the eighth century of considerable importance in the ethnic history of Japan?

10.The fact that the Japanese are a product of «racial min­gling» (II. 136,137) contradicts the myth that they are____.

11 .A. For which two reasons would it have been natural for the Koreans to have become absorbed within the Japanese population both culturally and racially?

12. Explain the irony in the lines 184-189: «Clearly they included people engaged in leather work or butchery, since the Buddhist prejudice against the taking of all animal life made others look down on such persons, though... not on the butchers of human life in a feudal society dominated by a military elite».

13. In drawing his «population and G[ross] N[ational] P[roduct] maps»(ll. 220) the writer distorted the actual (geo­graphic) setting of Japan in two ways. Define these two distor­tions and give his justification for each.

a.

b.

14. «attitudes and skills once suitable to their position in the world do not serve them as well today» (II. 239, 240)

A. What is their position in the world today?

B. What aspect of their culture has he mentioned that might not «serve them as well today» as it did in the past? (And why not?)

15. «Isolation and homogeneity do not necessarily go to­gether» (1. 70-71).

A. Which of these two qualities have been characteristic of Japan in the past?

B. What changes, if any, has Japan undergone with re­spect to these two qualities in recent times?

^ THE OUTSIDERS

(Exercise A)

Rart I

1. In para.l: Why are «right» and «wrong» in quotation marks?

2. In paras.4, 5 (II.20-32):

A. What are the three types of rules mentioned?

1.

2a.

2b.

  1. What types of agents of «enforcement» are mentioned?

la.

1b.

2.

4. «... the rule-breaker may feel his judges are outsiders.» (1. 10, 14) In which lines (further on in the text) does Becker give us examples illustrating this point? (Give first and last words and line numbers).

5. A. Para 6 (II.33-39) categorizes outsiders according to the degree to which we________________.

B. Para 7 (II.40-48) categorizes rule-breakers according to the degree to which they____________.

6. For the section sub-titled «Definitions of Deviance».

  1. Describe the different definitions of «deviance» which the author rejects. After each description cite the writer's criticism/s of that particular view of deviance.(Give the line numbers for the sections dealing with each view).

Definition 1 (line numbers _______) :

Criticism/s : Definition 2 (line numbers_______) :

criticism/s Definition 3 (line numbers________) :

criticism/s Definition 4 (line numbers________) :

criticism/s Definition 5 (line numbers__________)


Criticism/s :

7. «Another sociological view is more relativistic.» (1.158) In what sense is it more «relativistic» than the preceding view (which concerns itself with that which is functional or dys­functional within a given society)?

8. The sociological view that «is closest to [the writer's] own [view] (1.163) cannot deal adequately with_________ situations.

(one word)

9. What is Becker's definition of deviance? (Give brief sum­mary and line numbers.)

10. «Some people may be labeled deviant who in fact have not broken a rule» (II. 203, 205)

«Many offenders may escape apprehension and thus fail to be included in the population of «deviants». (II.210, 211)

Both of the above facts are cited by Becker as proof of the inadequacy of certain views of deviance. Which views? In what sense can they be considered proof of the inadequacy of these views?

11. What function is served by the long quotation from Malinowski?

12. A. What sub-title might be given to the section begin­ning with line 297 and ending with line 347 (The degree ... the mother)?

  1. How many different «variations» does the author cite in this section? (List them and give line numbers for each).

a. (lines ): variations related to ___________.

b. (lines ): variations related to ___________.

e. (lines ): variations related to ___________.

13. «Crimes committed by corporations are almost always prosecuted as civil cases, but the same crime committed by an individual is ordinarily treated as a criminal offense» (II.334-337) This illustrates the author's thesis that__________.

14. Vincent's note on unmarried fathers (II.340-347) is cited by Becker as an example which supports which thesis?

15. A girl who becomes pregnant as a result of an illicit sexual relationship (II. 342-347) suffers severe condemnation for which two reasons?

A.

B.

16. Becker's view of deviance has been labeled «The Inter­active Approach». Which sentence in the text makes clear why this label has been applied? (Give 1st and last words and line numbers). Who (or what) are the factors that «interact» in this view?

^ THE OUTSIDERS

(Exercise B)

Events in the Narrative and their Sequence (II.)

The following statements represent events which occurred in the narrative. Rearrange the statements according to the order in which they occurred (NOT necessarily the order in which the author relates them). Number the statements from 1 to 11.

__a. The quarrel was repeated during the funeral.

__b. Kima'i broke the rule of exogamy.

__c. Later he insulted the culprit in public and accused him in the hearing of the whole community of incest.

__d. It became the duty of his clansman to avenge him.

__e. Among the Trobrianders there was a rule of exogamy.

__f. The girl's discarded lover, who had wanted to marry her, felt personally injured.

__g. Before jumping to his death, he explained the rea­sons for his desperate deed and launched forth a veiled accusa­tion against the man who had forced him into this situation.

__h. The partner in his crime was his maternal cousin, the daughter of his mother's sister.

__i. He took the initiative and first threatened to use black

magic.

__j. There was a general feeling of hostility between the villages.

__k. After having been publicly insulted, the unfortunate guilty youth had only one means of escape.

__1. There followed a fight within the village in which the rival was wounded.

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